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Network Services
Network services
31.1 (1) A person who, in providing serv- ices related to the operation of the Internet or another digital network, provides any means for the telecommunication or the reproduction of a work or other subject-matter through the Internet or that other network does not, solely by reason of providing those means, infringe copyright in that work or other subject-matter.
Exception
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a service provided by the person if the provision of that service constitutes an infringement of copyright under subsection 27(2.3).
Incidental acts
(3) Subject to subsection (4), a person referred to in subsection (1) who caches the work or other subject-matter, or does any similar act in relation to it, to make the telecommunication more efficient does not, by virtue of that act alone, infringe copyright in the work or other subject-matter.
Conditions for application
(4) Subsection (3) does not apply unless the person, in respect of the work or other subject-matter,
(a) does not modify it, other than for technical reasons;
(b) ensures that any directions related to its caching or the doing of any similar act, as the case may be, that are established by whoever made it available for telecommunication through the Internet or another digital network, and that lend themselves to automated reading and execution, are read and executed; and
(c) does not interfere with the lawful use of technology to obtain data on its use.
Hosting
(5) Subject to subsection (6), a person who, for the purpose of allowing the telecommunication of a work or other subject-matter through the Internet or another digital network, provides digital memory in which another person stores the work or other subject-matter does not, by virtue of that act alone, infringe copyright in the work or other subject-matter.
Condition for application
(6) Subsection (5) does not apply in respect of a work or other subject-matter if the person providing the digital memory knows of a decision of a court of competent jurisdiction to the effect that the person who has stored the work or other subject-matter in the digital memory infringes copyright by making the copy of the work or other subject-matter that is stored or by the way in which he or she uses the work or other subject-matter.
1997, c. 24, s. 19
36. The portion of subsection 32(1) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:
Reproduction in alternate format
32. (1) It is not an infringement of copyright for a person with a perceptual disability, for a person acting at the request of such a person or for a non-profit organization acting for the benefit of such a person to
37. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 32:
Sending copies outside Canada
32.01 (1) Subject to this section, it is not an infringement of copyright for a non-profit organization acting for the benefit of persons with a print disability to make a copy, in a format specially designed for persons with a print disability, of a work and to send the copy to a non-profit organization in another country for use by persons with print disabilities in that country, if the author of the work that is reformatted is
(a) a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act; or
(b) a citizen or permanent resident of the country to which the copy is sent.
Limitation
(2) Subsection (1) does not authorize a large print book or a cinematographic work to be sent outside Canada.
Work available in country
(3) Subsection (1) does not authorize a copy to be sent to a country if the organization knows or has reason to believe that the work, in the format specially designed for persons with a print disability, is available in that country within a reasonable time and for a reasonable price, and may be located in that country with reasonable effort.
Royalty
(4) The organization making and sending the copy shall pay, in accordance with the regulations, any royalty established under the regulations to the copyright owner in the work.
If copyright owner cannot be located
(5) If the organization cannot locate the copyright owner, despite making reasonable efforts to do so, the organization shall pay, in accordance with the regulations, any royalty established under the regulations to a collective society.
Reports
(6) The organization making and sending the copy shall submit reports to an authority in accordance with the regulations on the organization’s activities under this section.
Regulations
(7) The Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) requiring a non-profit organization that seeks to send a copy outside Canada to, before doing so, enter into a contract with the recipient non-profit organization with respect to the use of the copy;
(b) respecting the form and content of such contracts;
(c) respecting any royalties to be paid under subsections (4) and (5);
(d) respecting to which collective society a royalty is payable in relation to works or classes of works for the purposes of subsection (5);
(e) respecting what constitutes reasonable efforts for the purposes of subsection (5); and
(f) respecting the reports to be made, and the authorities to which the reports are to be submitted, under subsection (6).
Meaning of “print disability”
(8) In this section, “print disability” means a disability that prevents or inhibits a person from reading a literary, musical or dramatic work in its original format, and includes such a disability resulting from
(a) severe or total impairment of sight or the inability to focus or move one’s eyes;
(b) the inability to hold or manipulate a book; or
(c) an impairment relating to comprehension.
38. Subsection 32.2(1) of the Act is amended by striking out “or” at the end of paragraph (d), by adding “or” at the end of paragraph (e) and by adding the following after paragraph (e):
(f) for an individual to use for private or non-commercial purposes, or permit the use of for those purposes, a photograph or portrait that was commissioned by the individual for personal purposes and made for valuable consideration, unless the individual and the owner of the copyright in the photograph or portrait have agreed otherwise.
39. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 32.5:
Certain rights and interests protected
32.6 Despite sections 27, 28.1 and 28.2, if a person has, before the day on which subsection 15(1.1), 17.1(1) or 18(1.1) applies in respect of a particular performers’ performance or sound recording, incurred an expenditure or a liability in connection with, or in preparation for, the doing of an act that would, if done after that day, have infringed rights under that subsection, any right or interest of that person that arises from, or in connection with, the doing of that act and that is subsisting and valuable on that day is not, for two years after the day on which this section comes into force, prejudiced or diminished by reason only of the subsequent application of that subsection in respect of the performers’ performance or sound recording.
1997, c. 24, s. 19
40. Subsection 33(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Certain rights and interests protected
33. (1) Despite subsections 27(1), (2) and (4) and sections 27.1, 28.1 and 28.2, if a person has, before the later of January 1, 1996 and the day on which a country becomes a treaty country other than a WCT country, incurred an expenditure or liability in connection with, or in preparation for, the doing of an act that, if that country had been such a treaty country, would have infringed copyright in a work or moral rights in respect of a work, any right or interest of that person that arises from, or in connection with, the doing of that act and that is subsisting and valuable on the later of those days is not, except as provided by an order of the Board made under subsection 78(3), prejudiced or diminished by reason only of that country having become such a treaty country.
41. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 33:
Certain rights and interests protected
33.1 (1) Despite subsections 27(1), (2) and (4) and sections 27.1, 28.1 and 28.2, if a person has, before the later of the day on which this section comes into force and the day on which a country that is a treaty country but not a WCT country becomes a WCT country, incurred an expenditure or liability in connection with, or in preparation for, the doing of an act that, if that country had been a WCT country, would have infringed a right under paragraph 3(1)(j), any right or interest of that person that arises from, or in connection with, the doing of that act and that is subsisting and valuable on the later of those days is not, except as provided by an order of the Board made under subsection 78(3), prejudiced or diminished by reason only of that country having become a WCT country.
Compensation
(2) Despite subsection (1), a person’s right or interest that is protected by that subsection terminates as against the copyright owner if and when the owner pays the person any compensation that is agreed to between the parties or, failing agreement, that is determined by the Board in accordance with section 78.
Certain rights and interests protected
33.2 (1) Despite subsections 27(1), (2) and (4) and sections 27.1, 28.1 and 28.2, if a person has, before the later of the day on which this section comes into force and the day on which a country that is not a treaty country becomes a WCT country, incurred an expenditure or a liability in connection with, or in preparation for, the doing of an act that, if that country had been a WCT country, would have infringed copyright in a work or moral rights in respect of a work, any right or interest of that person that arises from, or in connection with, the doing of that act and that is subsisting and valuable on the later of those days is not, except as provided by an order of the Board made under subsection 78(3), prejudiced or diminished by reason only of that country having become a WCT country.
Compensation
(2) Despite subsection (1), a person’s right or interest that is protected by that subsection terminates as against the copyright owner if and when that owner pays the person any compensation that is agreed to between the parties or, failing agreement, that is determined by the Board in accordance with section 78.
42. The Act is amended by adding the following before section 34:
Infringement of Copyright and Moral Rights
1997, c. 24, s. 20(1)
43. Subsection 34(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Moral rights
(2) In any proceedings for an infringement of moral rights, the court may grant to the holder of those rights all remedies by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right.
1997, c. 24, s. 20(1)
44. The portion of subsection 34.1(1) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:
Presumptions respecting copyright and ownership
34.1 (1) In any civil proceedings taken under this Act in which the defendant puts in issue either the existence of the copyright or the title of the plaintiff to it,
1997, c. 24, s. 20(1)
45. Sections 36 and 37 of the Act are repealed.
1997, c. 24, s. 20(1)
46. (1) Subsections 38.1(1) to (3) of the Act are replaced by the following:
Statutory damages
38.1 (1) Subject to this section, a copyright owner may elect, at any time before final judgment is rendered, to recover, instead of damages and profits referred to in subsection 35(1), an award of statutory damages for which any one infringer is liable individually, or for which any two or more infringers are liable jointly and severally,
(a) in a sum of not less than $500 and not more than $20,000 that the court considers just, with respect to all infringements involved in the proceedings for each work or other subject-matter, if the infringements are for commercial purposes; and
(b) in a sum of not less than $100 and not more than $5,000 that the court considers just, with respect to all infringements involved in the proceedings for all works or other subject-matter, if the infringements are for non-commercial purposes.
Infringements not involved in the proceedings
(1.1) If the copyright owner has made an election under subsection (1) with respect to a defendant’s infringements that are for non-commercial purposes, they are barred from recovering statutory damages under this section from that defendant with respect to any other of the defendant’s infringements that were done for non-commercial purposes before the institution of the proceedings in which the election was made.
No other statutory damages
(1.2) If a copyright owner has made an election under subsection (1) with respect to a defendant’s infringements that are for non-commercial purposes, every other copyright owner is barred from electing to recover statutory damages under this section in respect of that defendant for any of the defendant’s infringements that were done for non-commercial purposes before the institution of the proceedings in which the election was made.
If defendant unaware of infringement
(2) If a copyright owner has made an election under subsection (1) and the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant was not aware and had no reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant had infringed copyright, the court may reduce the amount of the award under paragraph (1)(a) to less than $500, but not less than $200.
Special case
(3) In awarding statutory damages under paragraph (1)(a) or subsection (2), the court may award, with respect to each work or other subject-matter, a lower amount than $500 or $200, as the case may be, that the court considers just, if
(a) there is more than one work or other subject-matter in a single medium; and
(b) the awarding of even the minimum amount referred to in that paragraph or that subsection would result in a total award that, in the court’s opinion, is grossly out of proportion to the infringement.
(2) Subsection 38.1(5) of the Act is amended by striking out “and” at the end of paragraph (b), by adding “and” at the end of paragraph (c) and by adding the following after paragraph (c):
(d) in the case of infringements for non-commercial purposes, the need for an award to be proportionate to the infringements, in consideration of the hardship the award may cause to the defendant, whether the infringement was for private purposes or not, and the impact of the infringements on the plaintiff.
(3) Subsection 38.1(6) of the Act is amended by striking out “or” at the end of paragraph (b) and by adding the following after paragraph (c):
(d) a person who infringes copyright under subsection 27(2.3); or
(e) an educational institution that is sued in the circumstances referred to in subsection 30.02(7) or a person acting under its authority who is sued in the circumstances referred to in subsection 30.02(8).
1997, c. 24, s. 22
47. Section 41 of the Act is replaced by the following:
Technological Protection Measures and Rights Management Information
Definitions
41. The following definitions apply in this section and in sections 41.1 to 41.21.
“circumvent”
« contourner »
“circumvent” means,
(a) in respect of a technological protection measure within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition “technological protection measure”, to descramble a scrambled work or decrypt an encrypted work or to otherwise avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technological protection measure, unless it is done with the authority of the copyright owner; and
(b) in respect of a technological protection measure within the meaning of paragraph (b) of the definition “technological protection measure”, to avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technological protection measure.
“technological protection measure”
« mesure technique de protection »
“technological protection measure” means any effective technology, device or component that, in the ordinary course of its operation,
(a) controls access to a work, to a perform- er’s performance fixed in a sound recording or to a sound recording and whose use is authorized by the copyright owner; or
(b) restricts the doing — with respect to a work, to a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or to a sound recording — of any act referred to in section 3, 15 or 18 and any act for which remuneration is payable under section 19.
Prohibition
41.1 (1) No person shall
(a) circumvent a technological protection measure within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition “technological protection measure” in section 41;
(b) offer services to the public or provide services if
(i) the services are offered or provided primarily for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure,
(ii) the uses or purposes of those services are not commercially significant other than when they are offered or provided for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure, or
(iii) the person markets those services as being for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure or acts in concert with another person in order to market those services as being for those purposes; or
(c) manufacture, import, distribute, offer for sale or rental or provide — including by selling or renting — any technology, device or component if
(i) the technology, device or component is designed or produced primarily for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure,
(ii) the uses or purposes of the technology, device or component are not commercially significant other than when it is used for the purposes of circumventing a technolog- ical protection measure, or
(iii) the person markets the technology, device or component as being for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure or acts in concert with another person in order to market the technology, device or component as being for those purposes.
Circumvention of technological protection measure
(2) The owner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording in respect of which paragraph (1)(a) has been contravened is, subject to this Act and any regulations made under section 41.21, entitled to all remedies — by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise — that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of copyright against the person who contravened that paragraph.
No statutory damages
(3) The owner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording in respect of which paragraph (1)(a) has been contravened may not elect under section 38.1 to recover statutory damages from an individual who contravened that paragraph only for his or her own private purposes.
Services, technology, device or component
(4) Every owner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording in respect of which a technological protection measure has been or could be circumvented as a result of the contravention of paragraph (1)(b) or (c) is, subject to this Act and any regulations made under section 41.21, entitled to all remedies — by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise — that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of copyright against the person who contravened paragraph (1)(b) or (c).
Law enforcement and national security
41.11 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply if a technological protection measure is circumvented for the purposes of an investigation related to the enforcement of any Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province, or for the purposes of activities related to the protection of national security.
Services
(2) Paragraph 41.1(1)(b) does not apply if the services are provided by or for the persons responsible for carrying out such an investigation or such activities.
Technology, device or component
(3) Paragraph 41.1(1)(c) does not apply if the technology, device or component is manufactured, imported or provided by the persons responsible for carrying out such an investigation or such activities, or is manufactured, imported, provided or offered for sale or rental as a service provided to those persons.
Interoperability of computer programs
41.12 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person who owns a computer program or a copy of one, or has a licence to use the program or copy, and who circumvents a technological protection measure that protects that program or copy for the sole purpose of obtaining information that would allow the person to make the program and any other computer program interoperable.
Services
(2) Paragraph 41.1(1)(b) does not apply to a person who offers services to the public or provides services for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure if the person does so for the purpose of making the computer program and any other computer program interoperable.
Technology, device or component
(3) Paragraph 41.1(1)(c) does not apply to a person who manufactures, imports or provides a technology, device or component for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure if the person does so for the purpose of making the computer program and any other computer program interoperable and
(a) uses that technology, device or component only for that purpose; or
(b) provides that technology, device or component to another person only for that purpose.
Sharing of information
(4) A person referred to in subsection (1) may communicate the information obtained under that subsection to another person for the purposes of allowing that person to make the computer program and any other computer program interoperable.
Limitation
(5) A person to whom the technology, device or component referred to in subsection (3) is provided or to whom the information referred to in subsection (4) is communicated may use it only for the purpose of making the computer program and any other computer program interoperable.
Non-application
(6) However, a person is not entitled to benefit from the exceptions under subsections (1) to (3) or (5) if, for the purposes of making the computer program and any other computer program interoperable, the person does an act that constitutes an infringement of copyright.
Non-application
(7) Furthermore, a person is not entitled to benefit from the exception under subsection (4) if, for the purposes of making the computer program and any other computer program interoperable, the person does an act that constitutes an infringement of copyright or an act that contravenes any Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province.
Encryption research
41.13 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person who, for the purposes of encryption research, circumvents a technolog-ical protection measure by means of decryption if
(a) it would not be practical to carry out the research without circumventing the technological protection measure;
(b) the person has lawfully obtained the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording that is protected by the technological protection measure; and
(c) the person has informed the owner of the copyright in the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording who has applied the technological protection measure.
Non-application
(2) However, a person acting in the circumstances referred to in subsection (1) is not entitled to benefit from the exception under that subsection if the person does an act that constitutes an infringement of copyright or an act that contravenes any Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province.
Technology, device or component
(3) Paragraph 41.1(1)(c) does not apply to a person referred to in subsection (1) who manufactures a technology, device or component for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure that is subject to paragraph 41.1(1)(a) if the person does so for the purpose of encryption research and
(a) uses that technology, device or component only for that purpose; or
(b) provides that technology, device or component only for that purpose to another person who is collaborating with the person.
Personal information
41.14 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person who circumvents a technolog- ical protection measure if
(a) the work, performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or sound recording that is protected by the technological protection measure is not accompanied by a notice indicating that its use will permit a third party to collect and communicate personal information relating to the user or, in the case where it is accompanied by such a notice, the user is not provided with the option to prevent the collection and communication of personal information without the user’s use of it being restricted; and
(b) the only purpose of circumventing the technological protection measure is to verify whether it permits the collection or communication of personal information and, if it does, to prevent it.
Services, technology, device or component
(2) Paragraphs 41.1(1)(b) and (c) do not apply to a person who offers services to the public or provides services, or manufactures, imports or provides a technology, device or component, for the purposes of circumventing a technological protection measure in accordance with subsection (1), to the extent that the services, technology, device or component do not unduly impair the technological protection measure.
Security
41.15 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person who circumvents a technolog- ical protection measure that is subject to that paragraph for the sole purpose of, with the consent of the owner or administrator of a computer, computer system or computer network, assessing the vulnerability of the comput- er, system or network or correcting any security flaws.
Services
(2) Paragraph 41.1(1)(b) does not apply if the services are provided to a person described in subsection (1).
Technology, device or component
(3) Paragraph 41.1(1)(c) does not apply if the technology, device or component is manufactured or imported by a person described in subsection (1), or is manufactured, imported, provided — including by selling or renting — offered for sale or rental or distributed as a service provided to that person.
Non-application
(4) A person acting in the circumstances referred to in subsection (1) is not entitled to benefit from the exception under that subsection if the person does an act that constitutes an infringement of copyright or an act that contravenes any Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province.
Persons with perceptual disabilities
41.16 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person with a perceptual disability, another person acting at their request or a non-profit organization acting for their benefit if that person or organization circumvents a technolog- ical protection measure for the sole purpose of making a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording perceptible to the person with a perceptual disability.
Services, technology, device or component
(2) Paragraphs 41.1(1)(b) and (c) do not apply to a person who offers or provides services to persons or organizations referred to in subsection (1), or manufactures, imports or provides a technology, device or component, for the purposes of enabling those persons or organizations to circumvent a technological protection measure in accordance with that subsection, to the extent that the services, technology, device or component do not unduly impair the technological protection measure.
Broadcasting undertakings
41.17 Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a broadcasting undertaking that circumvents a technological protection measure for the sole purpose of making an ephemeral reproduction of a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording in accordance with section 30.9, unless the owner of the copyright in the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording that is protected by the technological protection measure makes available the necessary means to enable the making of such a reproduction in a timely manner in light of the broadcasting undertaking’s business requirements.
Radio apparatus
41.18 (1) Paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply to a person who circumvents a technolog- ical protection measure on a radio apparatus for the sole purpose of gaining access to a telecommunications service by means of the radio apparatus.
Services or technology, device or component
(2) Paragraphs 41.1(1)(b) and (c) do not apply to a person who offers the services to the public or provides the services, or manufactures, imports or provides the technology, device or component, for the sole purpose of facilitating access to a telecommunications service by means of a radio apparatus.
Definitions
(3) The following definitions apply in this section.
“radio apparatus”
« appareil radio »
“radio apparatus” has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Radiocommunication Act.
“telecommunications service”
« service de télécommunication »
“telecommunications service” has the same meaning as in subsection 2(1) of the Telecommunications Act.
Reduction of damages
41.19 A court may reduce or remit the amount of damages it awards in the circumstances described in subsection 41.1(1) if the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant was not aware, and had no reasonable grounds to believe, that the defendant’s acts constituted a contravention of that subsection.
Injunction only remedy
41.2 If a court finds that a defendant that is a library, archive or museum or an educational institution has contravened subsection 41.1(1) and the defendant satisfies the court that it was not aware, and had no reasonable grounds to believe, that its actions constituted a contravention of that subsection, the plaintiff is not entitled to any remedy other than an injunction.
Regulations
41.21 (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations excluding from the application of section 41.1 any technological protection measure that protects a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording, or classes of them, or any class of such technological protection measures, if the Governor in Council considers that the application of that section to the technological protection measure or class of technological protection measures would unduly restrict competition in the aftermarket sector in which the technological protection measure is used.
Regulations
(2) The Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) prescribing additional circumstances in which paragraph 41.1(1)(a) does not apply, having regard to the following factors:
(i) whether not being permitted to circumvent a technological protection measure that is subject to that paragraph could adversely affect the use a person may make of a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording when that use is authorized,
(ii) whether the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording is commercially available,
(iii) whether not being permitted to circumvent a technological protection meas- ure that is subject to that paragraph could adversely affect criticism, review, news reporting, commentary, parody, satire, teaching, scholarship or research that could be made or done in respect of the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording,
(iv) whether being permitted to circumvent a technological protection measure that is subject to that paragraph could adversely affect the market for the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording or its market value,
(v) whether the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording is commercially available in a medium and in a quality that is appropriate for non-profit archival, preservation or educational uses, and
(vi) any other relevant factor; and
(b) requiring the owner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording that is protected by a technological protection meas- ure to provide access to the work, perform- er’s performance fixed in a sound recording or sound recording to persons who are entitled to the benefit of any of the limitations on the application of paragraph 41.1(1)(a) prescribed under paragraph (a). The regulations may prescribe the manner in which, and the time within which, access is to be provided, as well as any conditions that the owner of the copyright is to comply with.
Prohibition — rights management information
41.22 (1) No person shall knowingly remove or alter any rights management information in electronic form without the consent of the owner of the copyright in the work, the performer’s performance or the sound recording, if the person knows or should have known that the removal or alteration will facilitate or conceal any infringement of the owner’s copyright or adversely affect the owner’s right to remuneration under section 19.
Removal or alteration of rights management information
(2) The owner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording is, subject to this Act, entitled to all remedies — by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise — that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of copyright against a person who contravenes subsection (1).
Subsequent acts
(3) The copyright owner referred to in subsection (2) has the same remedies against a person who, without the owner’s consent, knowingly does any of the following acts with respect to any material form of the work, the performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or the sound recording and knows or should have known that the rights management information has been removed or altered in a way that would give rise to a remedy under that subsection:
(a) sells it or rents it out;
(b) distributes it to an extent that the copyright owner is prejudicially affected;
(c) by way of trade, distributes it, exposes or offers it for sale or rental or exhibits it in public;
(d) imports it into Canada for the purpose of doing anything referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (c); or
(e) communicates it to the public by telecommunication.
Definition of “rights management information”
(4) In this section, “rights management information” means information that
(a) is attached to or embodied in a copy of a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording, or appears in connection with its communication to the public by telecommunication; and
(b) identifies or permits the identification of the work or its author, the performance or its performer, the sound recording or its maker or the holder of any rights in the work, the performance or the sound recording, or concerns the terms or conditions of the work’s, performance’s or sound recording’s use.
General Provisions
Protection of separate rights
41.23 (1) Subject to this section, the owner of any copyright, or any person or persons deriving any right, title or interest by assignment or grant in writing from the owner, may individually for himself or herself, as a party to the proceedings in his or her own name, protect and enforce any right that he or she holds, and, to the extent of that right, title and interest, is entitled to the remedies provided by this Act.
Copyright owner to be made party
(2) If proceedings under subsection (1) are taken by a person other than the copyright owner, the copyright owner shall be made a party to those proceedings, except
(a) in the case of proceedings taken under section 44.1, 44.2 or 44.4;
(b) in the case of interlocutory proceedings, unless the court is of the opinion that the interests of justice require the copyright owner to be a party; and
(c) in any other case in which the court is of the opinion that the interests of justice do not require the copyright owner to be a party.
Owner’s liability for costs
(3) A copyright owner who is made a party to proceedings under subsection (2) is not liable for any costs unless the copyright owner takes part in the proceedings.
Apportionment of damages, profits
(4) If a copyright owner is made a party to proceedings under subsection (2), the court, in awarding damages or profits, shall, subject to any agreement between the person who took the proceedings and the copyright owner, apportion the damages or profits referred to in subsection 35(1) between them as the court considers appropriate.
Concurrent jurisdiction of Federal Court
41.24 The Federal Court has concurrent jurisdiction with provincial courts to hear and determine all proceedings, other than the prosecution of offences under sections 42 and 43, for the enforcement of a provision of this Act or of the civil remedies provided by this Act.
Provisions Respecting Providers of Network Services or Information Location Tools
Notice of claimed infringement
41.25 (1) An owner of the copyright in a work or other subject-matter may send a notice of claimed infringement to a person who provides
(a) the means, in the course of providing services related to the operation of the Internet or another digital network, of telecommunication through which the electronic location that is the subject of the claim of infringement is connected to the Internet or another digital network;
(b) for the purpose set out in subsection 31.1(5), the digital memory that is used for the electronic location to which the claim of infringement relates; or
(c) an information location tool as defined in subsection 41.27(5).
Form and content of notice
(2) A notice of claimed infringement shall be in writing in the form, if any, prescribed by regulation and shall
(a) state the claimant’s name and address and any other particulars prescribed by regulation that enable communication with the claimant;
(b) identify the work or other subject-matter to which the claimed infringement relates;
(c) state the claimant’s interest or right with respect to the copyright in the work or other subject-matter;
(d) specify the location data for the electronic location to which the claimed infringement relates;
(e) specify the infringement that is claimed;
(f) specify the date and time of the commission of the claimed infringement; and
(g) contain any other information that may be prescribed by regulation.
Obligations related to notice
41.26 (1) A person described in paragraph 41.25(1)(a) or (b) who receives a notice of claimed infringement that complies with subsection 41.25(2) shall, on being paid any fee that the person has lawfully charged for doing so,
(a) without delay forward the notice elec- tronically to the person to whom the elec-tronic location identified by the location data specified in the notice belongs and inform the claimant of its forwarding or, if applicable, of the reason why it was not possible to forward it; and
(b) retain records that will allow the identity of the person to whom the electronic location belongs to be determined, and do so for six months beginning on the day on which the notice of claimed infringement is received or, if the claimant commences proceedings relating to the claimed infringement and so notifies the person before the end of those six months, for one year after the day on which the person receives the notice of claimed infringement.
Fees related to notices
(2) The Minister may, by regulation, fix the maximum fee that a person may charge for performing his or her obligations under subsection (1). If no maximum is fixed by regulation, the person may not charge any amount under that subsection.
Damages related to notices
(3) A claimant’s only remedy against a person who fails to perform his or her obligations under subsection (1) is statutory damages in an amount that the court considers just, but not less than $5,000 and not more than $10,000.
Regulations — change of amounts
(4) The Governor in Council may, by regulation, increase or decrease the minimum or maximum amount of statutory damages set out in subsection (3).
Injunctive relief only — providers of information location tools
41.27 (1) In any proceedings for infringement of copyright, the owner of the copyright in a work or other subject-matter is not entitled to any remedy other than an injunction against a provider of an information location tool that is found to have infringed copyright by making a reproduction of the work or other subject-matter or by communicating that reproduction to the public by telecommunication.
Conditions for application
(2) Subsection (1) applies only if the provid- er, in respect of the work or other subject-matter,
(a) makes and caches, or does any act similar to caching, the reproduction in an automated manner for the purpose of providing the information location tool;
(b) communicates that reproduction to the public by telecommunication for the purpose of providing the information that has been located by the information location tool;
(c) does not modify the reproduction, other than for technical reasons;
(d) complies with any conditions relating to the making or caching, or doing of any act similar to caching, of reproductions of the work or other subject-matter, or to the communication of the reproductions to the public by telecommunication, that were established by whoever made the work or other subject-matter available through the Internet or another digital network and that lend themselves to automated reading and execution; and
(e) does not interfere with the lawful use of technology to obtain data on the use of the work or other subject-matter.
Limitation
(3) If the provider receives a notice of claimed infringement, relating to a work or other subject-matter, that complies with subsection 41.25(2) after the work or other subject-matter has been removed from the electronic location set out in the notice, then subsection (1) applies, with respect to reproductions made from that electronic location, only to infringements that occurred before the day that is 30 days — or the period that may be prescribed by regulation — after the day on which the provider receives the notice.
Exception
(4) Subsection (1) does not apply to the provision of the information location tool if the provision of that tool constitutes an infringement of copyright under subsection 27(2.3).
Meaning of “information location tool”
(5) In this section, “information location tool” means any tool that makes it possible to locate information that is available through the Internet or another digital network.
48. Section 42 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (3):
Circumvention of technological protection measure
(3.1) Every person, except a person who is acting on behalf of a library, archive or museum or an educational institution, is guilty of an offence who knowingly and for commercial purposes contravenes section 41.1 and is liable
(a) on conviction on indictment, to a fine not exceeding $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years or to both; or
(b) on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding $25,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.
49. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 43:
Limitation or Prescription Period
Limitation or prescription period for civil remedies
43.1 (1) Subject to subsection (2), a court may award a remedy for any act or omission that has been done contrary to this Act only if
(a) the proceedings for the act or omission giving rise to a remedy are commenced within three years after it occurred, in the case where the plaintiff knew, or could reasonably have been expected to know, of the act or omission at the time it occurred; or
(b) the proceedings for the act or omission giving rise to a remedy are commenced within three years after the time when the plaintiff first knew of it, or could reasonably have been expected to know of it, in the case where the plaintiff did not know, and could not reasonably have been expected to know, of the act or omission at the time it occurred.
Restriction
(2) The court shall apply the limitation or prescription period set out in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) only in respect of a party who pleads a limitation period.
1997, c. 24, s. 34(1)
50. Subsection 58(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Execution of instruments
58. (1) Any assignment of a copyright, or any licence granting an interest in a copyright, may be executed, subscribed or acknowledged at any place in a treaty country, a Rome Convention country or a WPPT country by the assignor, licensor or secured or hypothecary debtor, before any notary public, commissioner or other official, or the judge of any court, who is authorized by law to administer oaths or certify documents in that place and who also subscribes their signature and affixes to, or impresses on, the assignment or licence their official seal or the seal of the court of which they are a judge.
1997, c. 24, s. 37(2)
51. Paragraphs 62(1)(a) and (b) of the Act are replaced by the following:
(a) for the purposes of paragraph 30.01(6)(d), respecting measures, which may vary according to circumstances specified in the regulations;
(b) for the purposes of paragraph 30.02(3)(d), respecting measures, which may vary according to circumstances specified in the regulations;
(c) prescribing the form of a notice of claimed infringement referred to in subsection 41.25(2) and prescribing information to be contained in it;
(d) prescribing anything that by this Act is to be prescribed by regulation; and
(e) generally for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Act.
1997, c. 24, s. 45; 2001, c. 34, s. 35(E)
52. Subsection 67.1(4) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Prohibition of enforcement
(4) If a proposed tariff is not filed with respect to the work, performer’s performance or sound recording in question, no action may be commenced, without the written consent of the Minister, for
(a) the infringement of the rights, referred to in section 3, to perform a work in public or to communicate it to the public by telecommunication;
(b) the infringement of the rights referred to in paragraph 15(1.1)(d) or 18(1.1)(a); or
(c) the recovery of royalties referred to in section 19.
1997, c. 24, s. 45
53. Subparagraph 68(2)(a)(i) of the Act is replaced by the following:
(i) the tariff applies in respect of perform- er’s performances and sound recordings only in the situations referred to in the provisions of section 20 other than subsections 20(3) and (4),
1997, c. 24, s. 45
54. Subsection 68.2(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Proceedings barred if royalties tendered or paid
(2) No proceedings may be brought against a person who has paid or offered to pay the royalties specified in an approved tariff for
(a) the infringement of the right to perform in public or the right to communicate to the public by telecommunication, referred to in section 3;
(b) the infringement of the rights referred to in paragraph 15(1.1)(d) or 18(1.1)(a); or
(c) the recovery of royalties referred to in section 19.
1997, c. 24, s. 50
55. Subsection 71(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Filing of proposed tariffs
71. (1) Each collective society that carries on the business of collecting royalties referred to in subsection 29.7(2) or (3) or paragraph 31(2)(d) shall file with the Board a proposed tariff, but no other person may file such a tariff.
1997, c. 24, s. 50
56. (1) Subsection 76(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Royalties that may be recovered
(2) An owner of copyright who does not authorize a collective society to collect, for that person’s benefit, royalties referred to in subsection 29.7(2) or (3) is, if such royalties are payable during a period when an approved tariff that is applicable to that kind of work or other subject-matter is effective, entitled to be paid those royalties by the collective society that is designated by the Board, of its own motion or on application, subject to the same conditions as those to which a person who has so authorized that collective society is subject.
1997, c. 24, s. 50
(2) Subparagraphs 76(4)(b)(i) and (ii) of the Act are repealed.
1997, c. 24, s. 50
57. Subsection 78(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:
Board may determine compensation
78. (1) Subject to subsection (2), for the purposes of subsections 32.4(2), 32.5(2), 33(2), 33.1(2) and 33.2(2), the Board may, on application by any of the parties referred to in one of those provisions, determine the amount of the compensation referred to in that provision that the Board considers reasonable, having regard to all the circumstances, including any judgment of a court in an action between the parties for the enforcement of a right mentioned in subsection 32.4(3) or 32.5(3).
1997, c. 24, s. 50.
58. Section 92 of the Act is replaced by the following:
Review of Act
92. Five years after the day on which this section comes into force and at the end of each subsequent period of five years, a committee of the Senate, of the House of Commons or of both Houses of Parliament is to be designated or established for the purpose of reviewing this Act.
TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
No revival of copyright in photograph
59. (1) The repeal of section 10 of the Copyright Act by section 6 does not have the effect of reviving copyright in any photograph in which, on the coming into force of that section 6, copyright had expired.
Cases where corporations were deemed to be authors
(2) In any case in which, immediately before the coming into force of section 6, a corporation is deemed, by virtue of subsection 10(2) of the Copyright Act as it read before the coming into force of that section 6, to be the author of a photograph in which copyright subsists at that time, the copyright in that photograph continues to subsist for the term determined in accordance with sections 6, 6.1, 6.2, 9, 11.1 or 12 of the Copyright Act as if its author were the individual who would have been considered the author of the photograph apart from that subsection 10(2).
Cases where individuals were deemed to be authors
(3) In any case in which an individual is deemed to be the author of a photograph, by virtue of subsection 10(2) of the Copyright Act as it read before the coming into force of section 6, the individual continues, after the coming into force of that section 6, to be the author of that photograph for the purposes of the Copyright Act.
Engraving, photograph or portrait
60. Subsection 13(2) of the Copyright Act, as it read immediately before the coming into force of section 7, continues to apply with respect to any engraving, photograph or portrait the plate or original of which was commissioned before the coming into force of that section 7.
No revival of copyright
61. Subsections 23(1) to (2) of the Copyright Act, as enacted by section 17, do not have the effect of reviving the copyright, or a right to remuneration, in any performer’s performance or sound recording in which the copyright or the right to remuneration had expired on the coming into force of those subsections.
Limitation or prescription period
62. (1) Subsection 43.1(1) of the Copyright Act, as enacted by section 49, applies only to proceedings with respect to an act or omission that occurred after the coming into force of that section.
Former limitation or prescription period continued
(2) Subsection 41(1) of the Copyright Act, as it read immediately before the coming into force of section 47, applies to proceedings with respect to an infringement that occurred before the coming into force of that section.
COMING INTO FORCE
Order in council
63. The provisions of this Act come into force on a day or days to be fixed by order of the Governor in Council.
Published under authority of the Speaker of the House of Commons
Available from:
Publishing and Depository Services
Public Works and Government Services Canada




Explanatory Notes
Clause 36: Relevant portion of subsection 32(1):
32. (1) It is not an infringement of copyright for a person, at the request of a person with a perceptual disability, or for a non-profit organization acting for his or her benefit, to
Clause 37: New.
Clause 38: Relevant portion of subsection 32.2(1):
32.2 (1) It is not an infringement of copyright
Clause 39: New.
Clause 40: Existing text of subsection 33(1):
33. (1) Notwithstanding subsections 27(1), (2) and (4) and sections 27.1, 28.1 and 28.2, where a person has, before the later of January 1, 1996 and the day on which a country becomes a treaty country, incurred an expenditure or liability in connection with, or in preparation for, the doing of an act that would have infringed a copyright owner’s copyright or an author’s moral rights had that country been a treaty country, any right or interest of that person that
(a) arises from or in connection with the doing of that act, and
(b) is subsisting and valuable on the latest of those days
is not prejudiced or diminished by reason only that that country has become a treaty country, except as provided by an order of the Board made under subsection 78(3).
Clause 41: New.
Clause 42: New.
Clause 43: Existing text of subsection 34(2):
(2) In any proceedings for an infringement of a moral right of an author, the court may grant to the author or to the person who holds the moral rights by virtue of subsection 14.2(2) or (3), as the case may be, all remedies by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right.
Clause 44: Relevant portion of subsection 34.1(1):
34.1 (1) In any proceedings for infringement of copyright in which the defendant puts in issue either the existence of the copyright or the title of the plaintiff thereto,
Clause 45: Existing text of sections 36 and 37:
36. (1) Subject to this section, the owner of any copyright, or any person or persons deriving any right, title or interest by assignment or grant in writing from the owner, may individually for himself or herself, as a party to the proceedings in his or her own name, protect and enforce any right that he or she holds, and, to the extent of that right, title and interest, is entitled to the remedies provided by this Act.
(2) Where proceedings referred to in subsection (1) are taken by a person other than the copyright owner, the copyright owner must be made a party to those proceedings, except
(a) in respect of proceedings taken under section 44.1, 44.2 or 44.4;
(b) in respect of interlocutory proceedings unless the court is of the opinion that the interests of justice require the copyright owner to be a party; and
(c) in any other case, if the court is of the opinion that the interests of justice do not require the copyright owner to be a party.
(3) A copyright owner who is made a party to proceedings pursuant to subsection (2) is not liable for any costs unless the copyright owner takes part in the proceedings.
(4) Where a copyright owner is made a party to proceedings pursuant to subsection (2), the court, in awarding damages or profits, shall, subject to any agreement between the person who took the proceedings and the copyright owner, apportion the damages or profits referred to in subsection 35(1) between them as the court considers appropriate.
37. The Federal Court has concurrent jurisdiction with provincial courts to hear and determine all proceedings, other than the prosecution of offences under section 42 and 43, for the enforcement of a provision of this Act or of the civil remedies provided by this Act.
Clause 46: (1) Existing text of subsections 38.1(1) to (3):
38.1 (1) Subject to this section, a copyright owner may elect, at any time before final judgment is rendered, to recover, instead of damages and profits referred to in subsection 35(1), an award of statutory damages for all infringements involved in the proceedings, with respect to any one work or other subject-matter, for which any one infringer is liable individually, or for which any two or more infringers are liable jointly and severally, in a sum of not less than $500 or more than $20,000 as the court considers just.
(2) Where a copyright owner has made an election under subsection (1) and the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant was not aware and had no reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant had infringed copyright, the court may reduce the amount of the award to less than $500, but not less than $200.
(3) Where
(a) there is more than one work or other subject-matter in a single medium, and
(b) the awarding of even the minimum amount referred to in subsection (1) or (2) would result in a total award that, in the court’s opinion, is grossly out of proportion to the infringement,
the court may award, with respect to each work or other subject-matter, such lower amount than $500 or $200, as the case may be, as the court considers just.
(2) Relevant portion of subsection 38.1(5):
(5) In exercising its discretion under subsections (1) to (4), the court shall consider all relevant factors, including
(3) Relevant portion of subsection 38.1(6):
(6) No statutory damages may be awarded against
Clause 47: Existing text of section 41:
41. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a court may not award a remedy in relation to an infringement unless
(a) in the case where the plaintiff knew, or could reasonably have been expected to know, of the infringement at the time it occurred, the proceedings for infringement are commenced within three years after the infringement occurred; or
(b) in the case where the plaintiff did not know, and could not reasonably have been expected to know, of the infringement at the time it occurred, the proceedings for infringement are commenced within three years after the time when the plaintiff first knew, or could reasonably have been expected to know, of the infringement.
(2) The court shall apply the limitation period set out in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) only in respect of a party who pleads a limitation period.
Clause 48: New.
Clause 49: New.
Clause 50: Existing text of subsection 58(1):
58. (1) Any assignment of copyright, or any licence granting an interest in a copyright, may be executed, subscribed or acknowledged at any place in a treaty country or a Rome Convention country by the assignor, licensor or mortgagor, before any notary public, commissioner or other official or the judge of any court, who is authorized by law to administer oaths or perform notarial acts in that place, and who also subscribes their signature and affixes thereto or impresses thereon their official seal or the seal of the court of which they are such judge.
Clause 51: Existing text of subsection 62(1):
62. (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) prescribing anything that by this Act is to be prescribed by regulation; and
(b) generally for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Act.
Clause 52: Existing text of subsection 67.1(4):
(4) Where a proposed tariff is not filed with respect to the work, performer’s performance or sound recording in question, no action may be commenced, without the written consent of the Minister, for
(a) the infringement of the rights, referred to in section 3, to perform a work in public or to communicate it to the public by telecommunication; or
(b) the recovery of royalties referred to in section 19.
Clause 53: Relevant portion of subsection 68(2):
(2) In examining a proposed tariff for the performance in public or the communication to the public by telecommunication of performer’s perform- ances of musical works, or of sound recordings embodying such performer’s performances, the Board
(a) shall ensure that
(i) the tariff applies in respect of performer’s performances and sound recordings only in the situations referred to in subsections 20(1) and (2),
Clause 54: Existing text of subsection 68.2(2):
(2) No proceedings may be brought for
(a) the infringement of the right to perform in public or the right to communicate to the public by telecommunication, referred to in section 3, or
(b) the recovery of royalties referred to in section 19
against a person who has paid or offered to pay the royalties specified in an approved tariff.
Clause 55: Existing text of subsection 71(1):
71. (1) Each collective society that carries on the business of collecting royalties referred to in subsection 29.6(2), 29.7(2) or (3) or paragraph 31(2)(d) shall file with the Board a proposed tariff, but no other person may file any such tariff.
Clause 56: (1) Existing text of subsection 76(2):
(2) An owner of copyright who does not authorize a collective society to collect, for that person’s benefit, royalties referred to in subsection 29.6(2) or 29.7(2) or (3) is, if such royalties are payable during a period when an approved tariff that is applicable to that kind of work or other subject-matter is effective, entitled to be paid those royalties by the collective society that is designated by the Board, of its own motion or on application, subject to the same conditions as those to which a person who has so authorized that collective society is subject.
(2) Relevant portion of subsection 76(4):
(4) The Board may, for the purposes of this section,
...  
(b) by regulation, establish periods of not less than twelve months within which the entitlements referred to in subsections (1) and (2) must be exercised, in the case of royalties referred to in
(i) paragraph 29.6(2)(a), beginning on the expiration of the year during which no royalties are payable under that paragraph,
(ii) paragraph 29.6(2)(b), beginning on the performance in public,
Clause 57: Existing text of subsection 78(1):
78. (1) Subject to subsection (2), for the purposes of subsections 32.4(2), 32.5(2) and 33(2), the Board may, on application by any of the parties referred to in one of those provisions, determine the amount of the compensation referred to in that provision that the Board considers reasonable, having regard to all the circumstances, including any judgment of a court in an action between the parties for the enforcement of a right mentioned in subsection 32.4(3) or 32.5(3).
Clause 58: Existing text of section 92:
92. (1) Within five years after the coming into force of this section, the Minister shall cause to be laid before both Houses of Parliament a report on the provisions and operation of this Act, including any recommendations for amendments to this Act.
(2) The report stands referred to the committee of the House of Commons, or of both Houses of Parliament, that is designated or established for that purpose, which shall
(a) as soon as possible thereafter, review the report and undertake a comprehensive review of the provisions and operation of this Act; and
(b) report to the House of Commons, or to both Houses of Parliament, within one year after the laying of the report of the Minister or any further time that the House of Commons, or both Houses of Parliament, may authorize.