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1st Session, 37th Parliament,
49-50 Elizabeth II, 2001

House of Commons of Canada

BILL C-24

An Act to amend the Criminal Code (organized crime and law enforcement) and to make consequential amendments to other Acts

      Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

R.S., c. C-46

CRIMINAL CODE

1997, c. 23, s. 1

1. (1) The definitions ``acte de gangstérisme'' and ``gang'' in section 2 of the French version of the Criminal Code are repealed.

1997, c. 23, s. 1

(2) The definition ``offence-related property'' in section 2 of the Act is replaced by the following:

``offence-relat ed property''
« bien infractionnel »

``offence-related property'' means any property, within or outside Canada,

      (a) by means or in respect of which an indictable offence under this Act is committed,

      (b) that is used in any manner in connection with the commission of an indictable offence under this Act , or

      (c) that is intended for use for the purpose of committing an indictable offence under this Act ;

1997, c. 23, s. 1

(3) The definition ``criminal organization'' in section 2 of the English version of the Act is replaced by the following:

``criminal organization''
« organisation criminelle »

``criminal organization'' has the same meaning as in subsection 467.1(1) ;

1997, c. 23, s. 1

(4) Paragraph (a) of the definition ``criminal organization offence'' in section 2 of the English version of the Act is replaced by the following:

      (a) an offence under section 467.11, 467.12 or 467.13 , or a serious offence committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, or

(5) Section 2 of the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order:

``justice system participant''
« personne associée au système judiciaire »

``justice system participant'' means

      (a) a Member of the Senate and a Member of the House of Commons, and

      (b) a person who plays a role in the administration of criminal justice, including

        (i) a prosecutor, a lawyer, a member of the Chambre des notaires du Québec and an officer of a court,

        (ii) a judge and a justice,

        (iii) a juror and a person who is summoned as a juror,

        (iv) an informant, a prospective witness, a witness under subpoena and a witness who has testified,

        (v) a peace officer within the meaning of any of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e) and (g) of the definition ``peace officer'',

        (vi) a civilian employee of a police force,

        (vii) a person employed in the administration of a court,

        (viii) a public officer within the meaning of subsection 25.1(1) and a person acting at the direction of such an officer,

        (ix) an employee of the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency who is involved in the investigation of an offence under an Act of Parliament,

        (x) an employee of a federal or provincial correctional service, a parole supervisor and any other person who is involved in the administration of a sentence under the supervision of such a correctional service and a person who conducts disciplinary hearings under the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, and

        (xi) an employee and a member of the National Parole Board and of a provincial parole board;

``serious offence''
« infraction grave »

``serious offence'' has the same meaning as in subsection 467.1(1);

1997, c. 23, s. 2

(6) Section 2 of the French version of the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order:

« infraction d'organisation criminelle »
``criminal organization offence''

« infraction d'organisation criminelle »

      a) Soit une infraction prévue aux articles 467.11, 467.12 ou 467.13 ou une infraction grave commise au profit ou sous la direction d'une organisation criminelle, ou en association avec elle;

      b) soit le complot ou la tentative en vue de commettre une telle infraction ou le fait d'en être complice après le fait ou d'en conseiller la perpétration.

« organisation criminelle »
``criminal organiza-
tion
''

« organisation criminelle » S'entend au sens du paragraphe 467.1(1).

2. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 25:

Definitions

25.1 (1) The following definitions apply in this section and sections 25.2 to 25.4.

``competent authority''
« autorité compétente »

``competent authority'' means, with respect to a public officer or a senior official,

      (a) in the case of a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Solicitor General of Canada, personally;

      (b) in the case of a member of a police service constituted under the laws of a province, the Minister responsible for policing in the province, personally; and

      (c) in the case of any other public officer or senior official, the Minister who has responsibility for the Act of Parliament that the officer or official has the power to enforce, personally.

``public officer''
« fonction-
naire public
»

``public officer'' means a peace officer, or a public officer who has the powers of a peace officer under an Act of Parliament.

``senior official''
« fonction-
naire supérieur
»

``senior official'' means a senior official who is responsible for law enforcement and who is designated under subsection (5).

Principle

(2) It is in the public interest to ensure that public officers may effectively carry out their law enforcement duties in accordance with the rule of law and, to that end, to expressly recognize in law a justification for public officers and other persons acting at their direction to commit acts or omissions that would otherwise constitute offences.

Designation of public officers

(3) A competent authority may designate public officers, or groups of public officers, for the purposes of this section and sections 25.2 to 25.4.

Considera-
tions

(4) The competent authority shall make designations under subsection (3) on the advice of a senior official and shall consider the nature of the duties performed by the public officer or group of public officers in relation to law enforcement generally, rather than in relation to any particular investigation or enforcement activity.

Designation of senior officials

(5) A competent authority may designate senior officials for the purposes of this section and sections 25.2 to 25.4.

Emergency designation

(6) A senior official may designate a public officer for the purposes of this section and sections 25.2 to 25.4 for a period of not more than 48 hours if the senior official is of the opinion that

    (a) by reason of exigent circumstances, it is not feasible for the competent authority to designate a public officer under subsection (3); and

    (b) in the circumstances of the case, the public officer would be justified in committing an act or omission that would otherwise constitute an offence.

The senior official shall without delay notify the competent authority of the designation.

Conditions

(7) A designation under subsection (3) or (6) may be made subject to conditions.

Justification for acts or omissions

(8) A public officer is justified in committing an act or omission - or in directing the commission of an act or omission under subsection (10) - that would otherwise constitute an offence if the public officer

    (a) is engaged in the investigation of an offence under, or the enforcement of, an Act of Parliament or in the investigation of criminal activity;

    (b) is either designated, or is a member of a group that is designated, under subsection (3) or (6); and

    (c) believes on reasonable grounds that the commission of the act or omission, as compared to the nature of the offence or criminal activity being investigated, is reasonable and proportional in the circumstances, having regard to such matters as the nature of the act or omission, the nature of the investigation and the reasonable availability of other means for carrying out the public officer's law enforcement duties.

Require-
ments for certain acts

(9) No public officer is justified in committing an act or omission that would otherwise constitute an offence and that would be likely to result in loss of or serious damage to property, or in directing the commission of an act or omission under subsection (10), unless, in addition to meeting the conditions set out in paragraphs (8)(a) to (c), he or she

    (a) is personally authorized in writing to commit the act or omission - or direct its commission - by a senior official who believes on reasonable grounds that committing the act or omission, as compared to the nature of the offence or criminal activity being investigated, is reasonable and proportional in the circumstances, having regard to such matters as the nature of the act or omission, the nature of the investigation and the reasonable availability of other means for carrying out the public officer's law enforcement duties; or

    (b) believes on reasonable grounds that the grounds for obtaining an authorization under paragraph (a) exist but it is not feasible in the circumstances to obtain the authorization and that the act or omission is necessary to

      (i) preserve the life or safety of any person,

      (ii) prevent the compromise of the identity of a public officer acting in an undercover capacity, of a confidential informant or of a person acting covertly under the direction and control of a public officer, or

      (iii) prevent the imminent loss or destruction of evidence of an indictable offence.

Person acting at direction of public officer

(10) A person who commits an act or omission that would otherwise constitute an offence is justified in committing it if he or she

    (a) commits it at the direction of a public officer; and

    (b) believes on reasonable grounds that its commission is for the purpose of assisting the public officer in the public officer's law enforcement duties.

Limitation

(11) Nothing in this section justifies

    (a) the intentional or criminally negligent causing of death or bodily harm to another person;

    (b) the wilful attempt in any manner to obstruct, pervert or defeat the course of justice; or

    (c) conduct that would violate the sexual integrity of an individual.

Protection, defences and immunities unaffected

(12) Nothing in this section affects the protection, defences and immunities of peace officers and other persons recognized under the law of Canada.

Compliance with requirements

(13) Nothing in this section relieves a public officer of criminal liability for failing to comply with any other requirements that govern the collection of evidence.

Exception: offences under Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

(14) Nothing in this section justifies a public officer or a person acting at his or her direction in committing an act or omission - or a public officer in directing the commission of an act or omission - that constitutes an offence under a provision of Part I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act or of the regulations made under it.

Public officer to file report

25.2 Every public officer who commits an act or omission - or directs the commission by another person of an act or omission - under paragraph 25.1(9)(a) or (b) shall, as soon as is feasible after the commission of the act or omission, file a written report with the appropriate senior official describing the act or omission.

Annual report

25.3 (1) Every competent authority shall publish or otherwise make available to the public an annual report for the previous year that includes, in respect of public officers and senior officials designated by the competent authority,

    (a) the number of designations made under subsection 25.1(6) by the senior officials;

    (b) the number of authorizations made under paragraph 25.1(9)(a) by the senior officials;

    (c) the number of times that acts and omissions were committed in accordance with paragraph 25.1(9)(b) by the public officers;

    (d) the nature of the conduct being investigated when the designations referred to in paragraph (a) or the authorizations referred to in paragraph (b) were made or when the acts or omissions referred to in paragraph (c) were committed; and

    (e) the nature of the acts or omissions committed under the designations referred to in paragraph (a), under the authorizations referred to in paragraph (b) and in the manner described in paragraph (c).

Limitation

(2) The annual report shall not contain any information the disclosure of which would

    (a) compromise or hinder an ongoing investigation of an offence under an Act of Parliament;

    (b) compromise the identity of a public officer acting in an undercover capacity, of a confidential informant or of a person acting covertly under the direction and control of a public officer;

    (c) endanger the life or safety of any person;

    (d) prejudice a legal proceeding; or

    (e) otherwise be contrary to the public interest.

Written notification to be given

25.4 (1) When a public officer commits an act or omission - or directs the commission by another person of an act or omission - under paragraph 25.1(9)(a) or (b), the senior official with whom the public officer files a written report under section 25.2 shall, as soon as is feasible after the report is filed, and no later than one year after the commission of the act or omission, notify in writing any person whose property was lost or seriously damaged as a result of the act or omission.

Limitation

(2) The competent authority may authorize the senior official not to notify the person under subsection (1) until the competent authority is of the opinion that notification would not

    (a) compromise or hinder an ongoing investigation of an offence under an Act of Parliament;